Alhamdulillah was-salatu was-salaamu 'ala rasoolillah. All thanks and praise is to ALLAH, Subhanahu wa ta'ala, and we ask that HIS blessings and peace be upon HIS Messenger, Muhammad, salla ALLAHu alaihi wa sallam.
All of us have probably experienced having a cold. Colds are responsible for 22 million missed school days a year in the United States. Some estimates indicate Americans suffer 1 billion colds a year! For most peoples, colds are mild and the symptoms disappear within a couple of weeks.
The older one gets, the less they suffer from colds. People over 60 have less than 1 cold a year while adults average 2-4 a year and children 6-10 a year. This is due to the closer contact between children than older people.
There are over 200 known viruses that cause cold-like symptoms. Some of these can produce serious illnesses while others do not. Rhinoviruses cause 35% of all adult colds and they are most active in the fall, spring and summer. Coronaviruses cause a large percentage of adult colds too and they are primarily active in the winter and spring. Other viruses that can also cause more severe illnesses are responsible for 15% of colds and some of the causes of colds are yet identified. There is no evidence that exposure to cold weather, getting chilled or overheated, or having enlarged tonsils can cause a cold though the viruses that cause colds survive better when the humidity is low.
In the United States, most colds occur during the fall and winter. The symptoms are: mucus buildup in the nose, difficulty in breathing through the nose, sinus swelling, sneezing, sore throat, coughing, headaches and a slight fever. (Children may experience higher fevers.) These symptoms last up to 2 weeks but most people recover in 1 week. Colds may lead to bacterial infections. Bacterial infections should be treated with antibiotics. A high fever, swollen glands, earache or severe sinus pain may indicate a bacterial infection.
Colds spread when the germs are transferred from an infected person to another person. This can happen by touching any surface that has the germs and then touching your eyes or nose. The germs may be on an infected person’s skin or on a telephone, railing or other surface. One may also be infected by breathing air containing drops of mucus full of cold germ.
While there is no cure for the common cold, one may get relief by resting, drinking plenty of fluids, gargling with warm salt water or using throat lozenges. Aspirin, acetaminophen, nonprescription cold remedies and antihistamines may relieve some of the symptoms but normally do not prevent or shorten the length of the illness. One should always exercise caution when taking any medication. Antibiotics do not help treat colds, which are viral infections.
To try to prevent contracting or spreading a cold, one should not touch their eyes and nose unless they have washed their washed their hands, avoid people with colds and cover your nose and mouth when sneezing. Rhinoviruses can live up to 3 hours on the skin or other objects. Disinfecting surfaces may prevent the spread of colds.
There is no scientific evidence that taking vitamin C or Echinacea helps prevent or relieve colds.
(Extracted from The Common Cold on the National Institutes of Health website.)
The bread industry suffered with the low-carb diet trend, with sales dropping 4% in 2004. But they are making a comeback with an aggressive marketing campaign and US government guidelines calling on adults to consume 3 one-ounce servings of whole grains a day.(Reported in Yahoo on January 31, 2005.)
Energy drinks have been the fastest growing segment in the beverage industry. However, they can be harmful, especially if abused. Energy drinks get their kick from caffeine, which can raise heart rate and blood pressure.(Reported in Yahoo on February 4, 2005.)
The Emerging Markets Program provides funding to promote exports of United States agricultural products to emerging markets around the world. It was authorized by the Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act of 1990. The program provides $10 million a fiscal year to promote generic products. It cannot be used to promote branded products.
The funding is provided in three channels:
The Central Fund, which is done through public announcement,
The Technical Issues and Resolution Fund, which addresses technical barriers to exports, and
The Quick Response Marketing Fund, which resolves short-term time-sensitive market access issues.
And emerging market is defined as any country that "is taking steps toward a market-oriented economy through the food, agriculture, or rural business sectors of the economy of the country" and "has the potential to provide a viable significant market for United States commodities or products of United States agricultural commodities". Other criteria are that the country should have a population greater than 1 million and per capita income less than $9,076 (for 2004-2005). Tobacco is excluded from the program.
Each project must be approved for funding separately. The types of projects, which may qualify for funding, are feasibility studies, market research, orientation visits, specialized training and business workshops. The types of projects that do not qualify are in-store promotions, restaurant promotions, branded product promotions, equipment purchases, new product development and advertising.
The application time is announced in the Federal Register and on the Foreign Agriculture Service website ( http://www.fas.usda.gov/mos/em-markets/em-markets.html) and is usually during the winter and spring. Any US agricultural organization, university, state department of agriculture, USDA agency or private US agricultural organization (includes non-profit organizations, for-profit organizations and trade associations) is eligible to participate. Private sector applicants must include some cost-sharing funding. That is funding provided by private organizations for the proposed purpose. This can be in cash or staffing for the work involved. Funds from foreign sources are not counted. Funding justification must also be provided, including an explanation of what could not be accomplished without this funding.